La pensée-signe: Études sur C. S. Peirce (Philosophie de la connaissance) (French Edition)
Publisher of many works in ethics, Thiel's works include books and articles in referred international journals. She has also supervised a number of researches. Notably, she was the e. He was best known for his works Democracy in America appearing in two volumes, and and The Old Regime and the Revolution In both, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies.
Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science. Tocqueville was active in French politics, first under the July Monarchy — and then during the Second Republic — which succeeded the February Revolution. December 27, — November 21, was a well known Jesuit Roman Catholic priest and author. Father Tonquedec was born in Morlaix, France on December 27, He received his doctorate in philosophy in and his doctorate in theology in From to he was the official exorcist of Paris, France from to Tonquedec died on November 21, in France.
Biography The son of a distinguished soldier, Claude Destutt, he was born in Paris. His family was of Scottish descent, tracing its origin to Walter Stutt, who in had accompanied the Earls of Buchan and Douglas to the court of France, and whose family afterwards rose to be counts of Tracy. He was educated at home and at the University of Strasbourg, where he was noted for his athletic skill. He went into the army, and when the French Revolution broke out, he took an active part in the provincial assembly of Bourbonnais.
Elected a deputy of the nobility to the states-general, he sat alongside his friend, the Marquis de La Fayette. Claude Tresmontant Biography Claude Tresmontant taught medieval philosophy and philosophy of science at the Sorbonne. He was a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Science. He is known as the founder of anthroposociology, the anthropological and sociological study of race as a means of establishing the superiority of certain peoples. From Vacher de Lapouge taught anthropology at the University of Montpellier, advocating Francis Galton's eugenic thesis, but was expelled in because of his socialist activities he co-founded J.
In he succeeded his master Cousin as professor of philosophy at the Sorbonne. It drew on him attacks from the Clerical party which led to his suspension in Shortly afterwards he refused to swear allegiance to the new imperial government, and was dismissed from his post. Upon the fall of the Empire, he took an active part in politics, was maire of a district of Paris during the siege, and in was in the.
Guillaume du Vair 7 March — 3 August was a French author and lawyer. Life He was born in Paris. After taking holy orders, he exercised only legal functions for most of his career. However, from till his death he was Bishop of Lisieux. His reputation is that of a lawyer, a statesman and a man of letters. In , he became counsellor of the parlement of Paris, and as deputy for Paris to the Estates of the League he pronounced his most famous politico-legal discourse, an argument nominally for the Salic law, but in reality directed against the alienation of the crown of France to the Spanish infanta, which was advocated by the extreme Leaguers.
King Henry IV of France acknowledged his services by entrusting him with a special commission as magistrate at Marseille, and made him master of requests. In , he was murdered by the Nazis during the Occupation of France. Involved in public activities as a teacher of philosophy, he supported as an antifascist the Front populaire and the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War. He joined the French Communist Party in In September , he volunteered for the French Army despite suffering from a heart condition. Mobilized as a soldier in Rethel, he began to write his Journal de guerre in January in the.
He was Rector of the University of Paris in He became Cardinal in and bishop of Albano in Studies John F. Bonaventure, Franciscan Institute Publications, He was mainly responsible for translating the philosophy of Immanuel Kant into the French language. Life Villers was born in Boulay-Moselle, France. He attained the rank of captain. Like other officers of that era, such as the artillery colonel Armand Marie Jacques de Chastenet of Puysegur, he became interested in animal magnetism. Dorothea was a pioneering female intellectual, the first woman to gain a doctors degree in Germany.
Villers moved in with. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20, letters and more than 2, books and pamphlets. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day.
From onwards he was a regent master in Lyon, becoming licentiate and master of theology at Lyon in Science, religion, and society: an encyclopedia of history, culture, and controversy, Volume 1. M E Sharpe. Although it may be argued that a major methodological interest of the Baroque hypothesis lies in its very imprecisi. He was born in Milan, of a Protestant family of English origin.
Jean-Pierre Voyer born , Bolbec is a post-situationist French philosopher. His main thesis is the non-existence of economy, and he claims to be inspired by Hegel and Marx, although he is very critical of the latter. He criticizes utilitarianism. Jorion has also published in the Revue de Mauss, a French anti-utilitarian journal.
He was in the U. However, he influenced a number of key thinkers i. Guillaume de Champeaux c. Biography William was born at Champeaux near Melun. After studying under Anselm of Laon and Roscellinus, he taught in the school of the cathedral of Notre-Dame, of which he was made canon in Among his pupils was Peter Abelard, of which he had a disagreement with because Abelard challenged some of his ideas, and William thought Abelard was too arrogant. William of Conches c. He was a prominent member of the School of Chartres. John of Salisbury, a bishop of Chartres and former student of William's, refers to William as the most talented grammarian after Bernard of Chartres.
Life He was born in Conches, Normandy. His teaching activity extended from c. It is possible, but uncertain, that he was teaching at Chartres before that. Warned by a friend of the danger implied in his Platonic realism as he applied it to theology, he took up the study of Islamic philosophy and physical science.
For the technique embodied in the automata of his time was that of the clockmaker. Let us consider the activity of the little figures which dance on the top of a music box. They move in accordance with a pattern, but it is a pattern which is set in advance, and in which the past activity of the figures has practically nothing to do with the pattern of their future activity. The probability that they will diverge from this pattern is nil. There is a message, indeed; but it goes from the machinery of the music box to the figures, and stops there. The figures themselves have no trace of communication with the outer world, except this one-way stage of communication with the pre-established mechanism of the music box.
They are blind, deaf, and dumb, and cannot vary their activity in the least from the conventionalized pattern. Contrast with them the behavior of man, or indeed of any moderately intelligent animal such as a kitten. I call to the kitten and it looks up. I have sent it a message which it has received by its sensory organs, and which it registers in action. The kitten is hungry and lets out a pitiful wail. This time it is the sender of a message. The kitten bats at a swinging spool. The spool swings to its left, and the kitten catches it with its left paw. This time messages of a very complicated nature are both sent and received within the kitten's own nervous system through certain nerve end-bodies in its joints, muscles, and tendons; and by means of nervous messages sent by these organs, the animal is aware of the actual position and tensions of its tissues.
It is only through these organs that anything like a manual skill is possible. I have contrasted the prearranged behavior of the little figures on the music box on the one hand, and the contingent behavior of human beings and animals on the other. But we must not suppose that the music box is typical of all machine behavior. The older machines, and in particular the older attempts to produce automata, did in fact function on a closed clockwork basis.
But modern automatic machines such as the controlled missile, the proximity fuse, the automatic door opener, the control apparatus for a chemical factory, and the rest of the modern armory of automatic machines which perform military or industrial functions, possess sense organs; that is, receptors for messages coming from the outside.
These may be as simple as photoelectric cells which change electrically when a light falls on them, and which can tell light from dark, or as complicated as a television set. They may measure a tension by the change it produces in the conductivity of a wire exposed to it, or they may measure temperature by means of a thermocouple, which is an instrument consisting of two distinct metals in contact with one another through which a current flows when one of the points of contact is heated. Every instrument in the repertory of the scientific-instrument maker is a possible sense organ, and may be made to record its reading remotely through the intervention of appropriate electrical apparatus.
Thus the machine which is conditioned by its relation to the external world, and by the things happening in the external world, is with us and has been with us for some time. The machine which acts on the external world by means of messages is also familiar. The steps between the actuation of a machine of this type by sense organs and its performance of a task may be as simple as in the case of the electric door; or it may be in fact of any desired degree of complexity within the limits of our engineering techniques.
These are recorded in the machine. I have said that man and the animal have a kinaesthetic sense, by which they keep a record of the position and tensions of their muscles. For any machine subject to a varied external environment to act effectively it is necessary that information concerning the results of its own action be furnished to it as part of the information on which it must continue to act. For example, if we are running an elevator, it is not enough to open the outside door because the orders we have given should make the elevator be at that door at the time we open it. It is the function of these mechanisms to control the mechanical tendency toward disorganization; in other words, to produce a temporary and local reversal of the normal direction of entropy.
I have just mentioned the elevator as an example of feedback. There are other cases where the importance of feedback is even more apparent. For example, a gun-pointer takes information from his instruments of observation, and conveys it to the gun, so that the latter will point in such a direction that the missile will pass through the moving target at a certain time. In some of these the grease is warm, and the gun swings easily and rapidly. Under other conditions the grease is frozen or mixed with sand, and the gun is slow to answer the orders given to it.
If these orders are reinforced by an extra push given when the gun fails to respond easily to the orders and lags behind them, then the error of the gun-pointer will be decreased. To obtain a performance as uniform as possible, it is customary to put into the gun a control feedback element which reads the lag of the gun behind the position it should have according to the orders given it, and which uses this difference to give the gun an extra push.
It is true that precautions must be taken so that the push is not too hard, for if it is, the gun will swing past its proper position, and will have to be pulled back in a series of oscillations, which may well become wider and wider, and lead to a disastrous instability. If the feedback system is itself controlled— if, in other words, its own entropic tendencies are checked by still other controlling mechanisms— and kept within limits sufficiently stringent, this will not occur, and the existence of the feedback will increase the stability of performance of the gun.
In other words, the performance will become less dependent on the frictional load; or what is the same thing, on the drag created by the stiffness of the grease. Something very similar to this occurs in human action. If I pick up my cigar, I do not will to move any specific muscles. Indeed in many cases, I do not know what those muscles are. In this way, a fairly uniform voluntary command will enable the same task to be performed from widely varying initial positions, and irrespective of the decrease of contraction due to fatigue of the muscles. If I find the car swerving too much to the right, that causes me to pull it to the left.
I shall have more to say about this in the chapter in this book on special machines, where we shall discuss the service that can be done to neuropathology by the study of machines with defects in performance similar to those occurring in the human mechanism. It is my thesis that the physical functioning of the living individual and the operation of some of the newer communication machines are precisely parallel in their analogous attempts to control entropy through feedback.
The information is then turned into a new form available for the further stages of performance. In both the animal and the machine this performance is made to be effective on the outer world. This complex of behavior is ignored by the average man, and in particular does not play the role that it should in our habitual analysis of society; for just as individual physical responses may be seen from this point of view, so may the organic responses of society itself. I do not mean that the sociologist is unaware of the existence and complex nature of communications in society, but until recently he has tended to overlook the extent to which they are the cement which binds its fabric together.
We have seen in this chapter the fundamental unity of a complex of ideas which until recently had not been sufficiently associated with one another, namely, the contingent view of physics that Gibbs introduced as a modification of the traditional, Newtonian conventions, the Augustinian attitude toward order and conduct which is demanded by this view, and the theory of the message among men, machines, and in society as a sequence of events in time which, though it itself has a certain contingency, strives to hold back nature's tendency toward disorder by adjusting its parts to various purposive ends.
V Organization as the Message. The present chapter will contain an element of phantasy. Phantasy has always been at the service of philosophy, and Plato was not ashamed to clothe his epistemology in the metaphor of the cave. Bronowski among others has pointed out that mathematics, which most of us see as the most factual of all sciences, constitutes the most colossal metaphor imaginable, and must be judged, aesthetically as well as intellectually, in terms of the success of this metaphor. The metaphor to which I devote this chapter is one in which the organism is seen as message.
Organism is opposed to chaos, to disintegration, to death, as message is to noise. To describe an organism, we do not try to specify each molecule in it, and catalogue it bit by bit, but rather to answer certain questions about it which reveal its pattern: a pattern which is more significant and less probable as the organism becomes, so to speak, more fully an organism.
We have already seen that certain organisms, such as man, tend for a time to maintain and often even to increase the level of their organization, as a local enclave in the general stream of increasing entropy, of increasing chaos and de-differentiation. Life is an island here and now in a dying world. The process by which we living beings resist the general stream of corruption and decay is known as homeostasis. We can continue to live in the very special environment which we carry forward with us only until we begin to decay more quickly than we can reconstitute ourselves.
Then we die. If our bodily temperature rises or sinks one degree from its normal level of These mechanisms constitute what is known as homeostasis, and are negative feedback mechanisms of a type that we may find exemplified in mechanical automata. It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone of our personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we eat and the air we breathe become flesh of our flesh and bone of our bone, and the momentary elements of our flesh and bone pass out of our body every day with our excreta.
We are but whirlpools in a river of ever-flowing water. We are not stuff that abides, but patterns that perpetuate themselves. A pattern is a message, and may be transmitted as a message. How else do we employ our radio than to transmit patterns of sound, and our television set than to transmit patterns of light? It is amusing as well as instructive to consider what would happen if we were to transmit the whole pattern of the human body, of the human brain with its memories and cross connections, so that a hypothetical receiving instrument could re-embody these messages in appropriate matter, capable of continuing the processes already in the body and the mind, and of maintaining the integrity needed for this continuation by a process of homeostasis.
Let us invade the realm of science fiction. Some forty-five years ago, Kipling wrote a most remarkable little story. This was at the time when the flights of the Wright brothers had become familiar to the world, but before aviation was an everyday matter. He supposed that aerial travel had so united the world that war was obsolete, and that all the world's really important affairs were in the hands of an Aerial Board of Control, whose primary responsibility extended to air traffic, while its secondary responsibility extended to "all that that implies.
It is rather a fascist picture which Kipling gives us, and this is understandable in view of his intellectual presuppositions, even though fascism is not a necessary condition of the situation which he envisages. Moreover, with his love for the gadget as a collection of wheels that rotate and make a noise, he has emphasized the extended physical transportation of man, rather than the transportation of language and ideas.
He does not seem to realize that where a man's word goes, and where his power of perception goes, to that point his control and in a sense his physical existence is extended. To see and to give commands to the whole world is almost the same as being everywhere. Given his limitations Kipling, nevertheless, had a poet's insight, and the situation he foresaw seems rapidly coming to pass. I am assuming, of course, an adequate working staff of constructors, clerks of the works, etc. Under these conditions, even without transmitting or receiving any material commodities, the architect may take an active part in the construction of the building.
Let him draw up his plans and specifications as usual. The architect may be kept up to date with the progress of the work by photographic records taken every day or several times a day; and these may be forwarded back to him by Ultrafax. Any remarks or advice he cares to give his representative on the job may be transmitted by telephone, Ultrafax, or teletypewriter. In short, the bodily transmission of the architect and his documents may be replaced very effectively by the message-transmission of communications which do not entail the moving of a particle of matter from one end of the line to the other.
If we consider the two types of communication: namely, material transport, and transport of information alone, it is at present possible for a person to go from one place to another only by the former, and not as a message. However, even now the transportation of messages serves to forward an extension of man's senses and his capabilities of action from one end of the world to another. We have already suggested in this chapter that the distinction between material transportation and message transportation is not in any theoretical sense permanent and unbridgeable.
This takes us very deeply into the question of human individuality. The problem of the nature of human individuality and of the barrier which separates one personality from another is as old as history. The Christian religion and its Mediterranean antecedents have embodied it in the notion of soul. The Buddhists follow a tradition which agrees with the Christian tradition in giving to the soul a continuity after death, but this continuity is in the body of another animal or another human being, rather than in some Heaven or Hell.
In the most final Heaven of the Buddhists, however, the state of Nirvana, the soul loses its separate identity and is absorbed into the Great Soul of the World. These views have been without the benefit of the influence of science. The most interesting early scientific account of the continuity of the soul is Leibnitz's which conceives the soul as belonging to a larger class of permanent spiritual substances which he called monads. These monads spend their whole existence from the creation on in the act of perceiving one another; although some perceive with great clarity and distinctness, and others in a blurred and conf used manner.
This perception does not however represent any true interaction of the monads. The monads "have no windows," and have been wound up by God at the creation of the world so that they shall maintain their foreordained relationships with one another through all eternity. They are indestructible. Behind Leibnitz's philosophical views of the monads there lie some very interesting biological speculations.
It was in Leibnitz's time that Leeuwenhoek first applied the simple microscope to the study of very minute animals and plants. Among the animals that he saw were spermatozoa. In the mammal, spermatozoa are infinitely easier to find and to see than ova. The human ova are emitted one at a time, and unfertilized uterine ova or very early embryos were until recently rarities in the anatomical collections. Thus the early miscroscopists were under the very natural temptation to regard the spermatozoon as the only important element in the development of the young, and to ignore entirely the possibility of the as yet unobserved phenomenon of fertilization.
Furthermore, their imagination displayed to them in the front segment or head of the spermatozoon a minute fetus, rolled up with head forward. This fetus was supposed to contain in itself spermatozoa which were to develop into the next generation of fetuses and adults, and so on ad infinitum. The female was supposed to be merely the nurse of the spermatozoon.
Of course, from the modern point of view, this biology is simply false. The spermatozoon and the ovum are nearly equal participants in determining individual heredity. Furthermore, the germ cells of the future generation are contained in them in posse, and not in esse. Matter is not infinitely divisible, nor indeed from any absolute standpoint is it very finely divisible; and the successive diminutions required to form the Leeuwenhoek spermatozoon of a moderately high order would very quickly lead us down beyond electronic levels.
In the view now prevalent, as opposed to the Leibnitzian view, the continuity of an individual has a very definite beginning in time, but it may even have a termination in time quite apart from the death of the individual. It is well known that the first cell division of the fertilized ovum of a frog leads to two cells, which can be separated under appropriate conditions. If they are so separated, each will grow into a complete frog. This is nothing but the normal phenomenon of identical twinning in a case in which the anatomical accessibility of the embryo is sufficient to permit experimentation.
It is exactly what occurs in human identical twins, and is the normal phenomenon in those armadillos that bear a set of identical quadruplets at each birth. It is the phenomenon, moreover, which gives rise to double monsters, when the separation of the two parts of the embryo is incomplete. This problem of twinning may not however appear as important at first sight as it really is, because it does not concern animals or human beings with what may be considered well-developed minds and souls.
Not even the problem of the double monster, the imperfectly separated twins, is too serious in this respect. Viable double monsters must always have either a single central nervous system or a well-developed pair of separate brains. The difficulty arises at another level in the problem of split personalities.
A generation ago, Dr. Morton Prince of Harvard gave the case history of a girl, within whose body several better-or-worse-developed personalities seemed to succeed one another, and even to a certain extent to coexist. It is the fashion nowadays for the psychiatrists to look down their noses a little bit when Dr.
- Rejection (June Hunt Hope for the Heart).
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Prince's work is mentioned, and to attribute the phenomenon to hysteria. It is quite possible that the separation of the personalities was never as complete as Prince sometimes appears to have thought it to be, but for all that it was a separation. The word "hysteria" refers to a phenomenon well observed by the doctors, but so little explained that it may be considered but another question-begging epithet.
One thing at any rate is clear. The physical identity of an individual does not consist in the matter of which it is made. The biological individuality of an organism seems to lie in a certain continuity of process, and in the memory by the organism of the effects of its past development. This appears to hold also of its mental development. In terms of the computing machine, the individuality of a mind lies in the retention of its earlier tapings and memories, and in its continued development along lines already laid out.
Under these conditions, just as a computing machine may be used as a pattern on which to tape other computing machines, and just as the future development of these two machines will continue parallel except for future changes in taping and experience, so too, there is no inconsistency in a living individual forking or divaricating into two individuals sharing the same past, but growing more and more different.
This is what happens with identical twins; but there is no reason why it could not happen with what we call the mind, without a similar split of the body. This would be a conceivable explanation of Prince's observations. Moreover, it is thinkable that two large machines which had previously not been coupled may become coupled so as to work from that stage on as a single machine.
Indeed this sort of thing occurs in the union of the germ cells, although perhaps not on what we would ordinarily call a purely mental level. The mental identity necessary for the Church's view of the individuality of the soul certainly does not exist in any absolute sense which would be acceptable to the Church.
To recapitulate: the individuality of the body is that I of a flame rather than that of a stone, of a form rather than of a bit of substance. This form can be transmitted or modified and duplicated, although at present we know only how to duplicate it over a short distance.
When one cell divides into two, or when one of the genes which carries our corporeal and mental birth-right is split in order to make ready for a reduction division of a germ cell, we have a separation in matter which is conditioned by the power of a pattern of living tissue to duplicate itself. Since this is so, there is no absolute distinction between the types of transmission which we can use for sending a telegram from country to country and the types of transmission which at least are theoretically possible for transmitting a living organism such as a human being.
Let us then admit that the idea that one might conceivably travel by telegraph, in addition to traveling by train or airplane, is not intrinsically absurd, far as it may be from realization. The difficulties are, of course, enormous. It is possible to evaluate something like the amount of significant information conveyed by all the genes in a germ cell, and thereby to determine the amount of hereditary information, as compared with learned information, that a human being possesses. To hold an organism stable while part of it is being slowly destroyed, with the intention of re-creating it out of other material elsewhere, involves a lowering of its degree of activity, which in most cases would destroy life in the tissue.
In other words, the fact that we cannot telegraph the pattern of a man from one place to another seems to be due to technical difficulties, and in particular, to the difficulty of keeping an organism in being during such a radical reconstruction. The idea itself is highly plausible. As for the problem of the radical reconstruction of the living organism, it would be hard to find any such reconstruction much more radical than that of a butterfly during its period as a pupa.
I have stated these things, not because I want to write a science fiction story concerning itself with the possibility of telegraphing a man, but because it may! It will be well to reconsider Kipling's test of the importance of traffic in the modern world from the point of view of a traffic which is overwhelmingly not so much the transmission of human bodies as the transmission of human information. The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point.
Frequently the messages have meaning; that is they refer to or are correlated according to some system with certain physical or conceptual entities. These semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem. The significant aspect is that the actual message is one selected from a set of possible messages. The system must be designed to operate for each possible selection, not just the one which will actually be chosen since this is unknown at the time of design.
If the number of messages in the set is finite then this number or any monotonic function of this number can be regarded as a measure of the information produced when one message is chosen from the set, all choices being equally likely. As was pointed out by Hartley the most natural choice is the logarithmic function. Although this definition must be generalized considerably when we consider the influence of the statistics of the message and when we have a continuous range of messages, we will in all cases use an essentially logarithmic measure.
Introduction to the Second Edition. A health director. Both mouse and cat survived, and the incident is recorded here as a reminder that things seem to be changing. After three thousand years of explosion, by means of fragmentary and mechanical technologies, the Western world is imploding. During the mechanical ages we had extended our bodies in space.
Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned. There is little possibility of answering such questions about the extensions of man without considering all of them together. Any extension, whether of skin, hand, or foot, affects the whole psychic and social complex.
Some of the principal extensions, together with some of their psychic and social consequences, are studied in this book. Just how little consideration has been given to such matters in the past can be gathered from the consternation of one of the editors of this book. He noted in dismay that "seventy-five per cent of your material is new.
A successful book cannot venture to be more than ten per cent new. In the mechanical age now receding, many actions could be taken without too much concern. Slow movement insured that the reactions were delayed for considerable periods of time. Today the action and the reaction occur almost at the same time. We actually live mythically and integrally, as it were, but we continue to think in the old, fragmented space and time patterns of the pre-electric age.
Western man acquired from the technology of literacy the power to act without reacting. The advantages of fragmenting himself in this way are seen in the case of the surgeon who would be quite helpless if he were to become humanly involved us in the whole of mankind and to incorporate with in his operation. We acquired the art of carrying out the most dangerous social operations with complete detachment.
But our detachment was a posture of noninvolvement. In the electric age, when our central nervous system is technologically extended to whole of mankind and to incorporate the whole of mankind in us, we necessarily participate, in depth, in the consequences of our every action. It is no longer possible to adopt the aloof and dissociated role of the literate Westerner. The Theater of the Absurd dramatizes this recent dilemma of Western man, the man of action who appears not to be involved in the action. Such is the origin and appeal of Samuel Beckett's clowns. After three thousand years of specialist explosion and of increasing specialism and alienation in the technological extensions of our bodies, our world has become compressional by dramatic reversal.
As electrically contracted, the globe is no more than a village. Electric speed in bringing all social and political functions together in a sudden implosion has heightened human awareness of responsibility to an intense degree. It is this implo-sive factor that alters the position of the Negro, the teen-ager, and some other groups. This is the Age of Anxiety for the reason of the electric implosion that compels commitment and participation, quite regardless of any "point of view.
At the information level the same upset has occurred with the substitution of the inclusive image for the mere viewpoint. If the nineteenth century was the age of the editorial chair, ours is the century of the psychiatrist's couch. As extension of man the chair is a specialist ablation of the posterior, a sort of ablative absolute of backside, whereas the couch extends the integral being.
The psychiatrist employs the couch, since it removes the temptation to express private points of view and obviates the need to rationalize events. The aspiration of our time for wholeness, empathy and depth of awareness is a natural adjunct of electric technology. The age of mechanical industry that preceded us found vehement assertion of private outlook the natural mode of expression. Every culture and every age has its favorite model of perception and knowledge that it is inclined to prescribe for everybody and everything.
The mark of our time is its revulsion against imposed patterns. We are suddenly eager to have things and people declare their beings totally. There is a deep faith to be found in this new attitude — a faith that concerns the ultimate harmony of all being. Such is the faith in which this book has been written. It explores the contours of our own extended beings in our technologies, seeking the principle of intelligibility in each of them.
In the full confidence that it is possible to win an understanding of these forms that will bring them into orderly service, I have looked at time anew, accepting very little of the conventional wisdom concerning them. One can say of media as Robert Theobald has said of economic depressions: "There is one additional factor that has helped to control depressions, and that is a better understanding of their development.
In a culture like ours, long accustomed to splitting and dividing all things as a means of control, it is sometimes a bit of a shock to be reminded that, in operational and practical fact, the medium is the message. Thus, with automation, for example, the new patterns of human association tend to eliminate jobs, it is true. That is the negative result. Positively, automation creates roles for people, which is to say depth of involvement in their work and human association that our preceding mechanical technology had destroyed.
Many people would be disposed to say that it was not the machine, but what one did with the machine, that was its meaning or message. In terms of the ways in which the machine altered our relations to one another and to ourselves, it mattered not in the least whether it turned out cornflakes or Cadillacs. The restructuring of human work and association was shaped by the technique of fragmentation that is the essence of machine technology.
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The essence of automation technology is the opposite. It is integral and decentralist in depth, just as the machine was fragmentary, centralist, and superficial in its patterning of human relationships. The instance of the electric light may prove illuminating in this connection. The electric light is pure information.
It is a medium without a message, as it were, unless it is used to spell out some verbal ad or name. This fact, characteristic of all media, means that the "content" of any medium is always another medium. The content of writing is speech, just as the written word is the content of print, and print is the content of the telegraph. If it is asked, "What is the content of speech? What we are considering here, however, are the psychic and social consequences of the designs or patterns as they amplify or accelerate existing processes.
For the "message" of any medium or technology is the change of scale or pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs. The railway did not introduce movement or transportation or wheel or road into human society, but it accelerated and enlarged the scale of previous human functions, creating totally new kinds of cities and new kinds of work and leisure. This happened whether the railway functioned in a tropical or a northern environment and is quite independent of the freight or content of the railway medium.
The airplane, on the other hand, by accelerating the rate of transportation, tends to dissolve the railway form of city, politics, and association, quite independently of what the airplane is used for. Let us return to the electric light. When the light is being used for brain surgery or night baseball is a matter of indifference. It could be argued that these activities are in some way the "content" of the electric light, since they could not exist without the electric light.
This fact merely underlines the point that "the medium is the message" because it is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action. The content or uses of such media are as diverse as they are ineffectual in shaping the form of human association. Indeed, it is only too typical that the "content" of any medium blinds us to the character of the medium.
It is only today that industries have become aware of the various kinds of business in which they are engaged. When IBM discovered that it was not in the business of making office equipment or business machines, but that it was in the business of processing information, then it began to navigate with dear vision. The General Electric Company makes a considerable portion of its profits from electric light bulbs and lighting systems.
It has not yet discovered that, quite as much as A. The electric light escapes attention as a communication medium just because it has no "content. For it is not till the electric light is used to spell out some brand name that it is noticed as a medium. Then it is not the light but the "content" or what is really another medium that is noticed. The message of the electric light is like the message of electric power in industry, totally radical, pervasive, and decentralized. For electric light and power are separate from their uses, yet they eliminate time and space factors in human association exactly as do radio, telegraph, telephone, and TV, creating involvement in depth.
A fairly complete handbook for studying the extensions of man could be made up from selections from Shakespeare. But soft! It speaks, and yet says nothing. Have you not read Roderigo, Of some such thing? The increasing awareness of the action of media, quite independently of their "content" or programming, was indicated in the annoyed and anonymous stanza:. The same kind of total, configuration awareness that reveals why the medium is socially the message has occurred in the most recent and rad,cal medial theories. In his Stress of Life, Hans Selye tells of the dismay of a research colleague on hearing of Selye's theory:.
When he saw me thus launched on yet another enraptured description of what I had observed in animals treated with this or that impure, toxic material, he looked at me with desperately sad eyes and said in obvious despair: "But Selye, try to realize what you are doing before it is too late! You have now decided to spend your entire life studying the pharmacology of dirt! As Selye deals with the total environmental situation in his "stress" theory of disease, so the latest approach to media study considers not only the "content" but the medium and the cultural matrix within which the particular medium operates.
The older unawareness of the psychic and social effects of media can be illustrated from almost any of the conventional pronouncements. In accepting an honorary degree from the University of Notre Dame a few years ago, General David Sarnoff made this statement: "We are too prone to make technological instruments the scapegoats for the sins of those who wield them. The products of modern science are not in themselves good or bad; it is the way they are used that determines their value. Suppose we were to say, "Apple pie is in itself neither good nor bad; it is the way it is used that determines its value.
If the TV tube fires the right ammunition at the right people it is good. I am not being perverse. There is simply nothing in the Sarnoff statement that will bear scrutiny, for it ignores the nature of the medium. General Sarnor Twent on to explain his attitude to the technology of print, saying that it was true that print caused much trash to circulate, but it had also disseminated the Bible and the thoughts of seers and philosophers.
It has never occurred to General Sarnoffthat any technology could do anything but add itself on to what we already are. Such economists as Robert Theobald, W W. Rostow, and John Kenneth Galbraith have been explaining for years how it is that "classical economics" cannot explain change or growth. And the paradox of mechanization is that although it is itself the cause of maximal growth and change, the principle of mechanization excludes the very possibility of growth or the understanding of change.
For mechanization is achieved by fragmentation of any process and by putting the fragmented parts in a series. Yet, as David Hume showed in the eighteenth century, there is no principle of causality in a mere sequence. Questions d'architecture Jacques Boulet Appareil Embree, M. Hengehold, N. Revue germanique internationale 28 La Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg comme laboratoire Landscape and power in geographical space as a social-aesthetic construct Dordrecht, Springer.
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Lenin on socialism and the party in the long revolution Neil Harding in: The Palgrave handbook of Leninist political philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Lenin's philosophy in intellectual context Daniela Steila in: The Palgrave handbook of Leninist political philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.
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Pluralism and relationalism in social theory: lessons from the Tarde—Durkheim debate David Toews in: The Palgrave handbook of relational sociology, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Pme and the international community of mathematics education Rina Hershkowitz , Stefan Ufer in: Invited lectures from the 13th international congress on mathematical education, Dordrecht : Springer. Poetic sensibility, poetic practice: towards a phenomenology of the poetic Richard Marklew Metodo. Poetry and revelation: for a phenomenology of religious poetry Kevin Hart London, Bloomsbury.
Poetry's truth of dialogue Michael Mack in: The Palgrave handbook of philosophy and literature, Dordrecht : Springer. Political dimension of E. Husserl's phenomenology in the light of F. Fellmann's, H. Arendt's and J. Politics and literature Michael Keren in: The Palgrave handbook of philosophy and literature, Dordrecht : Springer. Politics of knowledge in community-based work in: Dimensions of community-based projects in health care, Dordrecht : Springer.
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Potentialities in the philosophy of mind Frank Hofmann in: Handbook of potentiality, Dordrecht : Springer. Potentiality in Aristotle's physics and biology Stephen Makin in: Handbook of potentiality, Dordrecht : Springer. Potentiality in classical arabic thought Taneli Kukkonen in: Handbook of potentiality, Dordrecht : Springer.
Powering knowledge versus pouring facts Petar S. Kenderov in: Invited lectures from the 13th international congress on mathematical education, Dordrecht : Springer. Practical intellect and substantial deliberation: in seeking an expressive notion of rationality Cheng Yuan Dordrecht, Springer.
Practical knowledge and linguistic competence Annalisa Coliva in: Eva Picardi on language, analysis and history, Dordrecht : Springer. Practical spirituality: human beings evolving into a higher level of communion and ethical relation with one another Janine Joyce in: Practical spirituality and human development, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Practical spirituality: judaic and multi-faith practices of transformations Pamela Frydman in: Practical spirituality and human development, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.
Practical spirituality and the desert fathers Shlomit C. Schuster in: Practical spirituality and human development, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Practical spirituality and the transformation of political power: the great law of peace and the influence of iroquois women and policies on u. Practice-based initial teacher education: developing inquiring professionals Glenda Anthony in: Invited lectures from the 13th international congress on mathematical education, Dordrecht : Springer. Practices of nontheistic spirituality Peter Heehs in: Practical spirituality and human development, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.
Practising the history of literary studies within the studies of particular authors Tomasz Mizerkiewicz. Pragmatism and its aftermath Stefano Oliverio in: International handbook of philosophy of education, Dordrecht : Springer. Pragmatist methodological relationalism in sociological understanding of evolving human culture Osmo Kivinen , Tero Piiroinen in: The Palgrave handbook of relational sociology, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Praxis Sarah Travis , Amelia M. Primary teachers' semiotic praxis: windows into the handling of division tasks Corin Mathews , Hamsa Venkat , Mike Askew in: Signs of signification, Dordrecht : Springer.
Problematic milieus: individuating speculative designs Tyler Fox in: New directions in third wave human-computer interaction 2, Dordrecht : Springer. Process as reality: Kierkegaard's aesthetic approach to the ethical Michael J. Process perspective on entrepreneurship Frank Gertsen , Astrid H. Nielsen in: The Palgrave handbook of multidisciplinary perspectives on entrepreneurship, Dordrecht : Springer.
Profession und Disziplin: Verbindendes — Trennendes? Professional development of mathematics teachers: through the lens of the camera Ronnie Karsenty in: Invited lectures from the 13th international congress on mathematical education, Dordrecht : Springer. Progressive visualization tasks and semiotic chaining for mathematics teacher preparation: towards a conceptual framework Barbara M.
Kinach in: Signs of signification, Dordrecht : Springer. Promoting more than just "diversity" at colleges and universities Dwayne Tunstall in: Contemporary philosophical proposals for the university, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Psychologie und Biographieforschung Phil C. Psychology in emerging aesthetics Christian G. Allesch in: An old melody in a new song, Dordrecht : Springer. Psychopathological dimensions and the clinician's subjective experience Mauro Pallagrosi , Angelo Picardi , Massimo Biondi in: Dimensional psychopathology, Dordrecht : Springer.
Psychopathological dimensions in emergency psychiatry: determinants of admission, compulsory treatment, and therapeutic intervention Federico Dazzi , Luigi Orso , Angelo Picardi , Massimo Biondi in: Dimensional psychopathology, Dordrecht : Springer. Psychosis or mystical religious experience? DeHoff Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Bonelli , Samuel Pfeifer Dordrecht, Springer. Daimon Revista Internacional de Filosofia 75 Puntos de vista Putnam on foundations: models, modals, muddles John P.
Burgess in: Hilary Putnam on logic and mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer. Putnam's constructivization argument Akihiro Kanamori in: Hilary Putnam on logic and mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer. Putnam's theorem on the complexity of models Warren Goldfarb in: Hilary Putnam on logic and mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer. Putting health back into the healthcare system Joachim P. Sturmberg in: Putting systems and complexity sciences into practice, Dordrecht : Springer. Putting systems and complexity sciences into practice: sharing the experience Joachim P. Sturmberg ed Dordrecht, Springer.
Quaker process as practical spirituality for the anthropocene age Sara J. Wolcott in: Practical spirituality and human development, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Qualitative and participatory action research Steven L. Arxer in: Dimensions of community-based projects in health care, Dordrecht : Springer. Qualitative Forschung in der Sozialpsychologie Phil C. Quantum mechanics as a semantic problem Hans Herlof Grelland in: The map and the territory, Dordrecht : Springer.
Quantum mechanics, the manifestation of the territory, and the evolution of maps Ulrich Mohrhoff in: The map and the territory, Dordrecht : Springer. Quantum physics and time from inconsistent marginals Chiara Marletto , Vlatko Vedral in: The map and the territory, Dordrecht : Springer. Questioning authority and authenticity: the creative translations of Josephine Balmer Susan Bassnett in: The Palgrave handbook of literary translation, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Questioning the role of foreign aid in media system research Suzanne Temwa Gondwe Harris in: The Palgrave handbook of media and communication research in Africa, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.
Questions of epistemic logic in Hintikka Simo Knuuttila in: Jaakko Hintikka on knowledge and game-theoretical semantics, Dordrecht : Springer. Berkowitz, I. Kearney, B. Pisano, J.